A correction method for the analytical model in Raman amplifiers systems based on energy conservation assumption.

Thiago Vieira Nogueira Coelho, Alexandre Bessa dos Santos, Marco Aurélio Jucá, Luiz carlos Carmo Jr., Maria José Pontes, Andres Pablo López-Barbero


This paper presents a modification for the already consolidated analytical model that calculates the gain and ripple in multi-pump Raman amplifiers by considering energy conservation. The original analytical model precisely computes the pump-pump interaction to the C- and L-band for a WDM input signal. However, when this method is used to amplify a large bandwidth, as the entire C and a part of the L band, the increase in the number of pump lasers impacts the obtained results. The error, if compared with results obtained by a numerical method, becomes significant. An analysis in terms of energy is proposed to minimize the discrepancy between analytical and numerical results. An improvement is observed to the gain results.


Raman amplifier, numerical model, analytical model, energy conservation

Full Text:



S. Singh, A. Singh, R S. Keller, "Performance evaluation of EDFA, Raman and SOA optical amplifier for WDM systems``, Optik, vol. 124, pp. 95-101, 2013.

V. R. Kumbhare. "Raman Amplifier Characteristics with Variation of Signal Power and Pump Power With and Without Amplified Spontaneous Emission``, International Conference on Recent Trends & Advancements in Engineering Technology, 2015.

T. V. N. Coelho, M. J. Pontes, J. P. Carvalho, J. L.Santos, A. Guerreiro. "A Remote Long-Period Grating Sensor with Electrical Interrogation assisted by Raman Amplification.`` Optics and Laser Technology, v.47, pg. 107-133, 2013.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo. "Optical Fiber Networks for Remote Fiber Optic Sensors.`` Sensors (Basel), vol. 12, pp 3929-3951, 2012.

C. R. S. Fludger; V. Handerek, "Pump to signal RIN Transfer in Raman Amplifier``, Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 15-17, Jan 2001.

J. Bromage. "Raman Amplification for Fiber Communication System.`` Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp 79-93, Jan 2004.

A. Berntson, S. Popov, E. Vanin, G. Jacobsen, and J. Karlsson, "Polarization dependence and gain tilt of Raman ampplifiers for WDM systems,`` In Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun (OFC2001), Anaheim, CA, 2001.

Shirley P. N. Cani, L. de Calazans Calmon, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, M. E. V. Segatto, e A. V. T. Cartaxo, "An Analytical Approximated Solution for the Gain of Broadband Raman Amplifiers With Multiple Counter-Pumps", Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 27, no.7, pp. 944-951, 2009.

S. Wang e C. Fan, "Generalised attenuation coefficients and a novel simulation model for Raman fibre amplifiers``, IEE Proc.-Optoelectron., vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 156-159, 2001.

M. N. Islam, "Raman Amplfier For Telecommunications 1. Physical Principles,`` Springer Series in Optical Sciences, EUA, 2004.

H. Kidorf; K. Rottwitt; M. Nissov; M. Ma; E. Rabarijaona. "Pump interactions in a 100nm bandwidth Raman Amplifier.`` IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 11, no. 5 pp. 530-532, 1999.

M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang, B. Nyman e A. Hardy, "Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier``, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 78, no. 10, pp. 1322-1324, 2001.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori. "Broadband Raman amplifiers design and practice, " In Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, OSA Technical Digest Washington DC: Optical Society of America, OMB2. 2000.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2179-10742016v15i3612


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© Copyright 2007-2016 JMOe Brazilian Microwave and Optoelectronics Society (SBMO) and Brazilian Society of Electromagnetism (SBMag)