SAR Analysis for Handheld Mobile Phone Using DICOM Based Voxel Model

Md. Faruk Ali, Sudhabindu Ray


In this paper, Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) inside the human head and hand have been analyzed for a handheld mobile phone operated at GSM 900 band. Both the head and hand are modeled electrically using Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) formatted CT Scan voxel data considering the electrical parameters of different internal anatomical structures. Three-dimensional Finite Difference in Time Domain (FDTD) method has been used to simulate SAR induced in the head and hand. Maximum peak 1-g and 10-g SARs of 1.33 W/kg and 0.388 W/kg are found at antenna resonance frequency of 930 MHz for 0.6 W applied input power which are below the limits set by ANSI/IEEE and FCC, respectively.

Full Text:



James C. Lin, "Mental process in humans and exposure to cell-phone radiation,`` IEEE Microwave Magazine, vol. 5, pp. 26-30, December-2004.

James C. Lin, "Malignant brain tumors from cellular mobile telephone radiation,`` IEEE Antenna and Propagation Magazine, vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 212-214, February-2007.

V. Kumar, M. Ahmad and A. K. Sharma, "Harmful effects of mobile phone waves on blood tissues of the human body,`` Eastern Journal of Medicine, vol. 15, pp. 80-89, 2010.

Harish, Sarah, "Now Mobiles Give You Kidney Damage,`` Daily Mail, December 13, 1999. EPI1812.

Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health, World Health Organization.

T. Takebayashi, N. Varsier, and Y. Kikuchi, "Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case control study. Br J Cancer: 98, pp. 652-659, 2008.

Svenska Dagbladet, "Microwaves open up Blood Brain Barrier,`` September 15, 1999. EPI1829.

H. Shabani, Md. R. Islam, AHM Z. Alam and H. E. Abd EI-Raouf, "EM Radiation from Wi-LAN Base Station and Its' Effects in Human Body,`` 5th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering 2008, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp. 86-91.

American National Standard – Safety Levels with Respect to Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz, ANSI/ IEEE C95.1 - 1992.

Federal Communication Commission (FCC), Home Page.

International Commission on non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "ICNIRP statement-Health issues related to the use of hand –held radiotelephones and base transmitters,`` Health Phys., vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 587-593, April-1996.

J. Wang and O. Fujiwara, "Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of Dosimetry in the Human Head for Portable telephones,`` IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. J84-B, No. 1, pp. 1-10, 2001.

J. M. Osepchuk and R. C. Petersen, "Safety Standards for Exposure to RF Electromagnetic Fields,`` IEEE, Microwave Magazine, vol. 2, pp. 55-69, June-2001.

S. Schmidt, "Finite-difference time-domain methods for electromagnetic problems involving biological bodies," Doctoral thesis, 2005.

D. G. Choi, C. S. Shin, N. K. Kim and H. S. Shin, "Design and SAR analysis of Broadband PIFA with Triple Band,`` Progress in Electromagnetics Research symposium 2005, Hangzhur, China, pp.22 – 26, August-2005.

Md. Faruk Ali and Sudhabindu Ray, "SAR Analysis on Human Head Exposed to Radiating Dipole Antenna for 500 MHz – 5 GHz Frequency Band Using FDTD method,`` National Conference on Communications, IIT Bombay, India, pp.481-485, 2008.

Md. Faruk Ali and Sudhabindu Ray, "SAR Analysis in a Spherical Inhomogeneous Human Head Model Exposed to Radiating Dipole Antenna for 500 MHz – 3 GHz Using FDTD method``, International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp.35-40, January - 2009.

N. Homsup and W. Homsup, "FDTD Simulation of a Mobile Phone Operating Near a Metal Wall,`` Journal of Computers, vol. 4, No. 2, February 2009.

M.Okoniewski, E.Okoniewski and M.A.Stuchly, "A Study of the Handset Antenna and Human Body Interaction,`` IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT – 44. No.10, pp.1855-1864, October-1996.

O. P. Gandhi, Gianluca Lazzi and Cynthia M. Furse, "Electromagnetic Absorption in the Human Head and Neck for Mobile Telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz,`` IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT – 44. No.10, pp.1884-1897, October-1996.

A. Hirata, M. Morita and T. Shiozawa, "Temperature increase in the human head due to a dipole antenna at microwave frequencies,`` IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 45, pp. 109-116, February-2003.

Matlab 7.8, The MathWorks, Inc.

CST Microwave Studio Suite 2010,

H. L. Fisher, W. S. Snyder, Annual progress report for period ending July 31 1966, Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, USA, 1966.

J. M. L. Hwang, R. L. Shoup, J. W. Poston, Mathematical description of a one- and five-year-old child for use in dosimetry calculations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, USA, 1976.

W. L. Chen, J. W. Poston, G. G. Warner, An evaluation of the distribution of absorbed dose in child phantoms exposed to diagnostic medical X rays, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, USA, 1978.

M. Cristy, Mathematical phantoms representing children of various ages for use in estimates of internal dose, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN, USA, 1980.

Rumen Rusev, "A Module for Visualisation and Analysis of Digital Images in DICOM File Format,`` International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies-CompSysTech'2003.

The Matlab Central File Exchange, available at:

T. M. Nassef, M. Alkhodary, M. K. Marei, N. H. Solouma and Y. M. Kadah, "Extraction of human Mandible bones from multi-slice Tomographic data,`` pp. 260-263, MECBME, February-2011.

J. C. Higgins and J. M. Fitzgerald, "Evaluation of Incidental Renal and Adrenal Masses, American Family,`` Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 228-295, January-2001.

U. Schneider E. Pedroni and A. Lomax, "The calibration of CT Hounsfield units for radiotherapy treatment planning,`` Phys. Med. Biol. 1996; 41:111-124.

D. C. Dias Medora and N. E. Prashant, "Morphometric Study of the Ventricular System of Brain by Computerized Tomography," Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Vol. 56, No. 1 (2007-01 - 2007-06).

F. Terrier, M.Grossholz and C. D. Becker, "Spiral CT of the Abdomen,`` Medical Radiology, Springer, 1999.

Dielectric Properties of the Human Body tissue in the Frequency Range of 10 Hz-100GHz.

N. Stevens and T. Masao, "An Improved FDTD Model for the Feeding Gap of a Thin-Wire Antenna,`` IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters. vol.– 8. No.4, pp.152-154, April-1998.

M. T. Islam and M. R. I. Faruque, "Reduction of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the Human Head with Ferrite Material and Metamaterial,`` Progress In Electromagnetic Research C, vol. – 9, pp.47-58, 2009.

S. Watanabe and L. Martens, "Comparison of Averaging Procedures for SAR Distributions at 900 and 1800 MHz,`` IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT – 48. No.11, pp.2180-2184, November-2000.

The Facts and Figures on Cellular Phone Radiation, (w.r.t: Nokia Asha 501s Type RM-899)



  • There are currently no refbacks.

© Copyright 2007-2016 JMOe Brazilian Microwave and Optoelectronics Society (SBMO) and Brazilian Society of Electromagnetism (SBMag)