Design of Distributed Optical-Fiber Raman Amplifiers using Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization

Carmelo J. A. Bastos-Filho, Elliackin M. N. Figueiredo, Joaquim F. Martins-Filho, Daniel A. R. Chaves, Marcelo E. V. Segatto, S. Cani, Maria J. Pontes

Abstract


A novel method is presented to design the configuration of pumping lasers of Raman amplifiers using a multi-objective particle swarm optimizer. The goal is to obtain the pump laser wavelengths and powers that maximize the amplifier on-off gain, while maintaining the flatness of the gain over the used bandwidth. We used an algorithm called Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization with Crowding Distance and Roulette Wheel to generate the non-dominated solutions, considering the average on-off gain and the ripple of the amplifier over the transmission bandwidth as the objectives in the optimization process. We designed amplifiers using three, four and five pump lasers. The experimental results showed that our proposal was able to design Raman amplifiers with a gain ripple lower than 0.2 dB and with an average on-off gain around 16.7 dB, when 20 signal channels and a total pump power of 1 W were considered. Moreover, we demonstrated that it is possible to allow the decision maker to choose among many possible non-dominated solutions depending on the application requirements.

Full Text:

PDF

References


X. Liu and B. Lee, "Optimal design for ultra-broad-band amplifier,`` Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 12, pp. 3446–3455, 2003.

M. Yan, J. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Li, J. Chen, and X. Li, "Automatic design scheme for optical-fiber raman amplifiers backward-pumped with multiple laser diode pumps,`` IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 948–950, September 2001.

J. Zhou, J. Chen, X. Li, W. Jiang, and Y. Wang, "A novel pump adjustment method for wdm pumped optical raman amplifier,`` Optics Communications, vol. 248, pp. 407–413, 2005.

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems,`` IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 79–93, January 2004.

C. Headley and G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems. San Diego, California, EUA: Elsevier Academic Press, 2005.

Y. Emori and S. Namiki, "100 nm bandwidth flat-gain raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalised by 12-wavelengthchannel wdm laser diode unit,`` Electronics Letters, vol. 35, no. 16, pp. 1355–1356, May 1999.

P. Xiao, Q. Zeng, J. Huang, and J. Liu, "A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier,`` IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 3, pp. 206–208, 2003.

A. Mowla and N. Granpayeh, "Design of a flat-gain multipumped distributed fiber Raman amplifier by particle swarm optimization,`` J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 3059–3066, December 2008.

R. A. Santana, M. R. Pontes, and C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, "A multiple objective particle swarm optimization approach using crowding distance and roulette wheel,`` in ISDA '09: Proceedings of the 2009 Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications. Pisa, Italia: IEEE, 2009.

S. Cani, L. de Calazans Calmon, M. Pontes, M. Ribeiro, M. Segatto, and A. Cartaxo, "An analytical approximated solution for the gain of broadband Raman amplifiers with multiple counter-pumps``, Lightwave Technology, Journal of, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 944 –951, 2009.

J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, "Particle swarm optimization,`` in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks. Perth, Aust: IEEE, 1995, pp. 1945–1948.

C. Coello, G. Pulido, and M. Lechuga, "Handling multiple objectives with particle swarm optimization,`` IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 256–279, 2004.

J. Schott, "Fault tolerant design using single and multicriteria genetic algorithm optimization,`` PHD Thesis, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1995.

E. Zitzler, K. Deb, and L. Thiele, "Comparison of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms: Empirical results,`` Evolutionary computation, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 173–195, 2000.

E.Zitzler and L.Thiele,"Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithms: A Comparative case study and the strength Pareto approach,`` IEEE transactions on Evolutionary Computation, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 257–271, 1999.

G. C. M. Ferreira,"Análise e Otimização de Sistemas Ópticos com Amplificação Raman,`` Projeto de Graduação, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, UFES, 2008.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2179-10742011000200003

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© Copyright 2007-2016 JMOe Brazilian Microwave and Optoelectronics Society (SBMO) and Brazilian Society of Electromagnetism (SBMag)