Analysis of Distributed Raman Amplification in the S-band over a 100 km Fiber Span

J. Fiuza, F. Mizutani, M. A. G. Martinez, M. J. Pontes, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi


The S-band is the next generation transmission window for dense wavelength division multiplexed systems. Distributed Raman amplification in the S band is specially challenging in optical communication systems deploying standard optical fibers. The pump wavelengths are located around the water peak wavelength for Raman amplification in the S-band region. The strong absorption around this wavelength region requires a higher pump power value to attain a given amount of on-off gain. Additionally, the effective noise figure of the distributed Raman amplifiers increases with pump absorption. The feasibility of a 70nm optical bandwidth Raman distributed amplification over 100km is numerically demonstrated using a True Wave Reach Low Water Peak optical fiber in the S-band. The reliability of the analysis lies in experimental Raman gain data, specially measured for S-band operation, used as input parameter in the numerical simulations. Additionally, the separation of the different processes to spectral gain shape in the analysis, such as pump-signal and pump-pump interactions, allows a straightforward determination of pump wavelengths and powers levels to cover the entire S band with minimum gain ripple. The analysis indicates the feasibility of a 15dB on/off gain with a gain ripple smaller than 2dB over 100km fiber span throughout the S band with the use of four pump lasers with power levels ranging from tenths to hundreds of miliwatts

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