A Novel Analytical Approach for Gain and ASE Modeling in Narrowband and Broadband LRA

Shirley P. N. Cani, Luiz C. Calmon


This work presents for the first time, according to the authors knowledge, an analytical formulation to signal and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) power evolution, in dispersion compensated counter-pumped lumped Raman amplifiers (LRA). Our analytical results for gain and optical signal to noise ratio in a 16-channel WDM system with a single pump in SMF_DCF have shown a good agreement with numerical simulations. We also have derived a closed analytical expression for the gain in LRAs with two interacting pumps, which is efficient to flatten the gain curve in a broadband Raman amplifier. A case of study considering the whole C-band has shown a good agreement between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation results. The analytical formulations were validated by comparing the calculated results with experimental data that also presented a good agreement.

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